responds to stress

calms rats and humans



In several species it leads to


Male hormones seem to reduce the effect of oxytocin, but the female hormone estrogen amplifies it.

Oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in social bonding,

ultrasonic vocalizations and other sexual behaviors.

Its presence within neuroendocrine regions in the forebrain is well established.

Its association with sensory nuclei remains unclear.

The presence of oxytocin immunoreactive neurons within several nuclei in the auditory brain.

Immunocytochemical procedures reveal OT-immunoreactive perikarya and/or fiber terminals in restricted areas of the

inferior colliculus (IC), superior olivary complex (SOC), including the medial and ventral nuclei of the trapezoid body, and the

cochlear nucleus.

Perikarya were labeled predominantly in the IC and SOC and both perikarya and fiber terminals were labeled extensively in the

cochlear nucleus.