"The meaning of melancholia? Merely the abysmal suffering that does not succeed in signifying itself and, having lost meaning loses life." Kristeva, Julia, Black Sun

Paul Vangelisti, "Collage as language: further thoughts on 'Events'," in Katherine Hoffman, Collage:critical views, Ann Arbor, UMI Research Press, 1989, "[collage] grew out of an urge (however fictively or artificially realized) to base art in physical reality, in the language contemporary reality was speaking to me [quotes Spicer on desire for "the moon in my(Spicer's) poems to be a real moon. which could suddenly be covered with a cloud...a moon utterly independent of images]." Vangelisti then goes on to describe his own experiences working with collage poetry and the effect this had on him - essentially he describes a move from "a certain 'tragic' ethos or stance for which the desire to write verse preordained me" to "the salvage in Portfolio is precisely comic, an assemblage of social and personal contexts within which poetic language may be renewed...in choosing to play with this phenomenon, I find my poetry redefining itself..."

"The technique of collage-making might be seen as a facsimile of primary process." Kristeva, Julia

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